Rare Earth Elements, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
Terbium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
REE Facts | HREE Facts | LREE Facts | Rare Metal Resource
LREE : 57 Lanthanum | 58 Cerium | 59 Praseodymium | 60 Neodymium | 61 Promethium | 62 Samarium | 63 Europium | 64 Gadolinium
HREE : 65 Terbium | 66 Dysprosium | 67 Holmium | 68 Erbium | 69 Thulium | 70 Ytterbium | 71 Lutetium | 39 Yttrium
Terbium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
Terbium the First of the Heavy Rare Earth Elements
Tracy Weslosky, Editor, InvestorIntel
Source: REE Handbook

Terbium, REE Collection, ProEdge Media Corp. Terbium is the first member of heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and is an additive in neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets in hybrid and electric vehicle motors allowing them to operate at high temperatures.

In 1843, Swedish chemist and pharmacist Carl Gustav Mosander named terbium for the small village and mine location in Ytterby, Sweden where the yttrium-bearing mineral was first discovered. Originally the names Mosander gave to terbia and erbia were confused and ended up being switched, the Swedish recoilless rifle Carl Gustav m48 was named after the discoverer.

There are numerous applications of terbium in addition to being additives in hybrid and electric vehicle motor magnets. For instance, in Terfenol-D, terbium expands and contracts in a magnetic field to precisely aim lasers. Terbium phosphors are used in flat panel displays, fluorescent bulbs and tubes, and X-ray intensifying screens. A terbium-iron-cobalt coating is used on CDs and DVDs for data storage and may be used in fiber-optic temperature sensors.

Terbium is a silvery-grey metal that is relatively stable in air. Malleable and ductile, this metal may be cut with a knife. It has a body-centered cubic structure, a density of 8.27 gm/cm3, a melting point of 1356 °C, and a boiling point of 2800 °C. Above 1310 °C terbium becomes a hexagonal close-packed structure. Terbium metal is formed when the fluoride preferentially separates from terbium fluoride at high temperature and combines with calcium metal forming calcium fluoride and a high-purity terbium metal.

Large resources of terbium are contained in HREE enriched minerals. Terbium occurs in the Earth's crust at an average concentration of 0.9 parts per million. Large resources of terbium in monazite and xenotime are available worldwide in ancient and recent placer deposits, carbonatites, uranium ores, and weathered clay deposits (ion-adsorption ore).

The rare earth element Terbium is mined from a variety of ore minerals and deposits using various methods. Monazite and xenotime are recovered from heavy-mineral sands (specific gravity >2.9) deposits in various parts of the world as a by product of mining zircon and titanium-minerals or tin minerals. Heavy mineral sands are recovered by surface placer methods from unconsolidated sands. Vein monazite has been mined by hard-rock methods in South Africa and the United States, and as a by product of tungsten mining in China.

For more information on the heavy rare earth element terbium, visit www.REEHandbook.com – the ultimate source for information on rare earth elements.

Terbium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
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Terbium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel